This specification describes a node discovery mechanism based on the Domain Name System (DNS). Its purpose is twofold:
Bootstrap: providing the initial node discovery for nodes that have no known contacts in the network
Assisted Node Location: supporting nodes in discovery of the current network address of previously known peers
A domain name server implementing this specification is referred to as a DNS Seed and answers incoming DNS queries of type
SRV, as specified in RFCs 10351, 35962, and 27823, respectively. The DNS server is authoritative for a subdomain, referred to as a seed root domain, and clients may query it for subdomains.
The subdomains consist of a number of dot-separated conditions that further narrow the desired results.
A client MAY issue queries using the
SRV query types, specifying conditions for the desired results the seed should return.
Queries distinguish between wildcard queries and node queries, depending on whether the
l-key is set or not.
The conditions are key-value pairs: the key is a single-letter, while the remainder of the key-value pair is the value. The following key-value pairs MUST be supported by a DNS seed:
r: realm byte
used to specify what realm the returned nodes must support
default value: 0 (Bitcoin)
a: address types
a bitfield that uses the types from BOLT #7 as bit
used to specify what address types should be returned for
MAY only be used for
default value: 6 (i.e.
2 || 4, since bit 1 and bit 2 are set for IPv4 and
node_id of a specific node
used to ask for a single node instead of a random selection
default value: null
n: number of desired reply records
default value: 25
Conditions are passed in the DNS seed query as individual, dot-separated subdomain components.
For example, a query for
r0.a2.n10.lseed.bitcoinstats.com would imply: return 10 (
n10) IPv4 (
a2) records for nodes supporting Bitcoin (
The DNS seed:
MUST evaluate the conditions from the seed root domain by
'going up-the-tree', i.e. evaluating right-to-left in a fully qualified domain
E.g. to evaluate the above case: first evaluate
a2, and finally
if a condition (key) is specified more than once:
MUST discard any earlier value for that condition AND use the new value
n5.r0.a2.n10.lseed.bitcoinstats.com, the result is:
SHOULD return results that match all conditions.
if it does NOT implement filtering by a given condition:
MAY ignore the condition altogether (i.e. the seed filtering is best effort only).
MUST return only nodes listening on the default port 9735, as defined in
MAY return nodes that are listening on non-default ports, since
records return a (hostname,port)-tuple.
upon receiving a wildcard query:
MUST select a random subset of up to
n IPv4 or IPv6 addresses of nodes
that are listening for incoming connections.
upon receiving a node query:
MUST select the record matching the
node_id, if any, AND return all
addresses associated with that node.
MUST NOT rely on any given condition being met by the results.
The results are serialized in a reply with a query type matching the client's query type. For example,
SRV queries respectively result in
SRV replies. Additionally, replies may be augmented with additional records (e.g. to add
AAAA records matching the returned
AAAA queries, the reply contains the domain name and the IP address of the results.
The domain name MUST match the domain in the query, in order not to be filtered by intermediate resolvers.
SRV queries, the reply consists of (virtual hostnames, port)-tuples. A virtual hostname is a subdomain of the seed root domain that uniquely identifies a node in the network. It is constructed by prepending the
node_id condition to the seed root domain.
The DNS seed:
MAY additionally return the corresponding
AAAA records that
indicate the IP address for the
SRV entries in the additional section of the
MAY omit these additional records upon detecting a repeated query.
Reason: due to the large size of the resulting reply, the reply may be
dropped by intermediate resolvers.
if no entries match all the conditions:
MUST return an empty reply.
The DNS seed:
MUST NOT return replies with a TTL less than 60 seconds.
MAY filter nodes from its local views for various reasons, including faulty
nodes, flaky nodes, or spam prevention.
MUST reply to random queries (i.e. queries to the seed root domain and to
_nodes._tcp. alias for
SRV queries) with random and unbiased
samples from the set of all known good nodes, in accordance with the Bitcoin DNS Seed policy4.
$ dig lseed.bitcoinstats.com AAAAlseed.bitcoinstats.com. 60 IN AAAA 2a02:aa16:1105:4a80:1234:1234:37c1:9c9
$ dig lseed.bitcoinstats.com SRVlseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 6331 ln1qwktpe6jxltmpphyl578eax6fcjc2m807qalr76a5gfmx7k9qqfjwy4mctz.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 9735 ln1qv2w3tledmzczw227nnkqrrltvmydl8gu4w4d70g9td7avke6nmz2tdefqp.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 9735 ln1qtynyymv99pqf0r9cuexvvqtxrlgejuecf8myfsa96vcpflgll5cqmr2xsu.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 4280 ln1qdfvlysfpyh96apy3w3qdwlu8jjkdhnuxa689ka540tnde6gnx86cf7ga2d.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 4281 ln1qwf789tlcpe4n34649xrqllxt97whsvfk5pm07ggqms3vrjwdj3cu6332zs.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.
Querying for the
A for the first virtual hostname from the previous example:
$ dig ln1qwktpe6jxltmpphyl578eax6fcjc2m807qalr76a5gfmx7k9qqfjwy4mctz.lseed.bitcoinstats.com Aln1qwktpe6jxltmpphyl578eax6fcjc2m807qalr76a5gfmx7k9qqfjwy4mctz.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 60 IN A 18.104.22.168
Querying for only IPv4 nodes (
a2) via seed filtering:
$dig a2.lseed.bitcoinstats.com SRVa2.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 9735 ln1q2jy22cg2nckgxttjf8txmamwe9rtw325v4m04ug2dm9sxlrh9cagrrpy86.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.a2.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 9735 ln1qfrkq32xayuq63anmc2zp5vtd2jxafhdzzudmuws0hvxshtgd2zd7jsqv7f.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.
Querying for only IPv6 nodes (
a4) supporting Bitcoin (
r0) via seed filtering:
$dig r0.a4.lseed.bitcoinstats.com SRVr0.a4.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 9735 ln1qwx3prnvmxuwsnaqhzwsrrpwy4pjf5m8fv4m8kcjkdvyrzymlcmj5dakwrx.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.r0.a4.lseed.bitcoinstats.com. 59 IN SRV 10 10 9735 ln1qwr7x7q2gvj7kwzzr7urqq9x7mq0lf9xn6svs8dn7q8gu5q4e852znqj3j7.lseed.bitcoinstats.com.
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